This section sets forth the following questions and answers that provide rules applicable to establishing Roth IRAs:
Q–1. Who can establish a Roth IRA?
A–1. Except as provided in A–3 of this section, only an individual can establish a Roth IRA. In addition, in order to be eligible to contribute to a Roth IRA for a particular year, an individual must satisfy certain compensation requirements and adjusted gross income limits (see §1.408A–3 A–3).
Q–2. How is a Roth IRA established?
A–2. A Roth IRA can be established with any bank, insurance company, or other person authorized in accordance with §1.408–2(e) to serve as a trustee with respect to IRAs. The document establishing the Roth IRA must clearly designate the IRA as a Roth IRA, and this designation cannot be changed at a later date. Thus, an IRA that is designated as a Roth IRA cannot later be treated as a traditional IRA. However, see §1.408A–4 A–1(b)(3) for certain rules for converting a traditional IRA to a Roth IRA with the same trustee by redesignating the traditional IRA as a Roth IRA, and see §1.408A–5 for rules for recharacterizing certain IRA contributions.
Q–3. Can an employer or an association of employees establish a Roth IRA to hold contributions of employees or members?
A–3. Yes. Pursuant to section 408(c), an employer or an association of employees can establish a trust to hold contributions of employees or members made under a Roth IRA. Each employee's or member's account in the trust is treated as a separate Roth IRA that is subject to the generally applicable Roth IRA rules. The employer or association of employees may do certain acts otherwise required by an individual, for example, establishing and designating a trust as a Roth IRA.
Q–4. What is the effect of a surviving spouse of a Roth IRA owner treating an IRA as his or her own?
A–4. If the surviving spouse of a Roth IRA owner treats a Roth IRA as his or her own as of a date, the Roth IRA is treated from that date forward as though it were established for the benefit of the surviving spouse and not the original Roth IRA owner. Thus, for example, the surviving spouse is treated as the Roth IRA owner for purposes of applying the minimum distribution requirements under section 408(a)(6) and (b)(3). Similarly, the surviving spouse is treated as the Roth IRA owner rather than a beneficiary for purposes of determining the amount of any distribution from the Roth IRA that is includible in gross income and whether the distribution is subject to the 10-percent additional tax under section 72(t).
[T.D. 8816, 64 FR 5601, Feb. 4, 1999]